In recent weeks, I explored important papal documents constituting the Doctrine of Discovery. In my previous post comparing Jesus and Muhammad, I argued that Christians appear more tolerant because of the evolving spirituality stemming from the continuous reinterpretation of the life of Jesus. Hence, today and in the coming weeks, I will explore papal documents that opposed slavery and the Doctrine of Discovery. My approach here will also be descriptive.
Today’s post examines Creator Omnium, issued by Pope Eugene IV on 17 December 1434. The bull is often erroneously referred to as “Sicut Dudum”, issued on 13 January 1435, a title representing the third paragraph’s first words. The bull excommunicates anyone who enslaves Christians of the Canary Islands (Spain). ‘Creator Omnium’ means “the Creator of all”.
The pope mentions that Christian inhabitants of the Canary Islands have been enslaved.
“Not long ago, we learned from our brother Ferdinand, bishop at Rubicon and representative of the faithful who are residents of the Canary Islands, and from messengers sent by them to the Apostolic See, and from other trustworthy informers, the following facts: in the said islands—some called Lanzarote—and other nearby islands, the inhabitants, imitating the natural law alone, and not having known previously any sect of apostates or heretics, have a short time since been led into the Orthodox Catholic Faith with the aid of God’s mercy.
Nevertheless, with the passage of time, it has happened that in some of the said islands, because of a lack of suitable governors and defenders to direct those who live there to a proper observance of the faith in things spiritual and temporal, and to protect valiantly their property and goods, some Christians (we speak of this with sorrow), with fictitious reasoning and seizing and opportunity, have approached said islands by ship, and with armed forces taken captive and even carried off to lands overseas very many persons of both sexes, taking advantage of their simplicity” (n.1).
The pope admits that enslaved Christians are renouncing their faith due to their enslavement by Christians.
“Some of these people were already baptized; others were even at times tricked and deceived by the promise of Baptism, having been made a promise of safety that was not kept. They have deprived the natives of the property, or turned it to their own use, and have subjected some of the inhabitants of said islands to perpetual slavery, sold them to other persons, and committed other various illicit and evil deeds against them, because of which very many of those remaining on said islands, and condemning such slavery, have remained involved in their former errors, having drawn back their intention to receive Baptism, thus offending the majesty of God, putting their souls in danger, and causing no little harm to the Christian religion” (n.2).
The pope appeals to enslavers.
The pope orders that the enslaved people in the Canary Islands be released. He imposes the penalty of excommunication on enslavers who refuse to do so.
“And no less do We order and command all and each of the faithful of each sex, within the space of fifteen days of the publication of these letters in the place where they live, that they restore to their earlier liberty all and each person of either sex who were once residents of said Canary Islands, and made captives since the time of their capture, and who have been made subject to slavery. These people are to be totally and perpetually free, and are to be let go without the exaction or reception of money. If this is not done when the fifteen days have passed, they incur the sentence of excommunication by the act itself, from which they cannot be absolved, except at the point of death, even by the Holy See, or by any Spanish bishop, or by the aforementioned Ferdinand, unless they have first given freedom to these captive persons and restored their goods” (n.4).
The pope imposes excommunication on those who capture or sell, or enslave Christians.
“We will that like sentence of excommunication be incurred by one and all who attempt to capture, sell, or subject to slavery, baptized residents of the Canary Islands, or those who are freely seeking Baptism, from which excommunication cannot be absolved except as was stated above” (n.4).
The pope extends blessings to those who obey his instruction.
“Those who humbly and efficaciously obey these, our exhortations and commands deserve, in addition to our favor, and that of the Apostolic See, and the blessings which follow therefrom, but are to be possessors of eternal happiness and to be placed at the right hand of God” (n.5).
There seems to be a disconnect in the papal documents. Pope Eugene issued Creator Omnium in 1434, condemning slavery, while in 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued Dum Diversas, empowering Portuguese kings to invade, conquer and subjugate non-Christian territories. The seeming disconnect might be due to enslaved Christians renouncing their faith because Christians enslaved them. Unfortunately, this situation reoccurred as non-Christian territories were converted through colonial rule and the Doctrine of Discovery.
May God continue to help us🙏🏾